As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we examine why the squeaky Paris climate change conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important Although the agreement has been welcomed by many, including French President François Hollande and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, criticisms have also been made. For example, James Hansen, a former NASA scientist and climate change expert, expressed anger that most of the deal is made up of “promises” or goals and not firm commitments.  He called the Paris talks a fraud without “no deeds, only promises” and believes that only an interterritorial tax on CO2 emissions, which is not part of the Paris Agreement, would reduce CO2 emissions fast enough to avoid the worst effects of global warming.  Since Trump`s announcement, U.S. envoys have continued to participate in UN climate negotiations, as planned, in order to consolidate the details of the agreement. Meanwhile, thousands of leaders across the country have stepped in to fill the void created by the lack of federal climate leadership, reflecting the will of the overwhelming majority of Americans who support the Paris Agreement. Among city and state officials, business leaders, universities, and individuals, there has been a wave of participation in initiatives such as America`s Pledge, the U.S. Climate Alliance, We Are Still In, and the American Cities Climate Challenge. Complementary and sometimes intersecting movements aim to deepen and accelerate efforts to combat climate change at local, regional and national levels.
Each of these efforts focuses on achieving the goals of the Paris Agreement, despite Trump`s attempts to steer the country in the opposite direction. Based solely on the current climate commitments of the Paris Agreement, temperatures are expected to have risen by 3.2°C by the end of the twenty-first century, according to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). To limit the increase in global temperature to 1.5°C, annual emissions must be below 25 gigatonnes (Gt) by 2030. With the current november 2019 commitments, emissions will be 56 Gt of CO2e by 2030, twice as much as the environmental target. To limit the increase in global temperature to 1.5°C, the overall annual reduction in emissions of 7.6% per year is needed between 2020 and 2030. . .